Best of all, the researchers say the test could provide an inexpensive means of early diagnosis. This assay could also be used to monitor how well patients respond to cancer therapy, according to a news release.
The protein had previously been identified as a promising biomarker and is readily detectable in tumor tissue, they wrote. However, it is found in extremely low concentrations in blood plasma and is “well below detection limits of conventional clinical laboratory methods,” they noted.
To overcome that obstacle, they employed an ultra-sensitive immunoassay known as a Simoa (Single-Molecule Array), an immunoassay platform for measuring fluid biomarkers.
“We were shocked by how well this test worked in detecting the biomarker’s expression across cancer types,” said lead study author gastroenterologist Martin Taylor, MD, PhD, Instructor in Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, in the press release. “It’s created more questions for us to explore and sparked interest among collaborators across many institutions.”
“We’ve known since the 1980s that transposable elements were active in some cancers, and nearly 10 years ago we reported that ORF1p was a pervasive cancer biomarker, but, until now, we haven’t had the ability to detect it in blood tests,” said pathologist and study co-author Kathleen Burns, MD, PhD (above), Chair of the Department of Pathology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and a Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School, in a press release. “Having a technology capable of detecting ORF1p in blood opens so many possibilities for clinical applications.” Clinical laboratories may soon have a new blood test to detect multiple types of cancer. (Photo copyright: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.)
In their press release, the researchers described ORF1p as “a hallmark of many cancers, particularly p53-deficient epithelial cancers,” a category that includes lung, breast, prostate, uterine, pancreatic, and head and neck cancers in addition to the cancers noted above.
“Pervasive expression of ORF1p in carcinomas, and the lack of expression in normal tissues, makes ORF1p unlike other protein biomarkers which have normal expression levels,” Taylor said in the press release. “This unique biology makes it highly specific.”
Simoa was developed at the laboratory of study co-author David R. Walt, PhD, the Hansjörg Wyss Professor of Bioinspired Engineering at Harvard Medical School, and Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
The Simoa technology “enables 100- to 1,000-fold improvements in sensitivity over conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques, thus opening the window to measuring proteins at concentrations that have never been detected before in various biological fluids such as plasma or saliva,” according to the Walt Lab website.
Simoa assays take less than two hours to run and require less than $3 in consumables. They are “simple to perform, scalable, and have clinical-grade coefficients of variation,” the researchers wrote.
Using the first generation of the ORF1p Simoa assay, the researchers tested blood samples of patients with a variety of cancers along with 406 individuals, regarded as healthy, who served as controls. The test proved to be most effective among patients with colorectal and ovarian cancer, finding detectable levels of ORF1p in 58% of former and 71% of the latter. Detectable levels were found in patients with advanced-stage as well as early-stage disease, the researchers wrote in Cancer Discovery.
Among the 406 healthy controls, the test found detectable levels of ORF1p in only five. However, the control with the highest detectable levels, regarded as healthy when donating blood, “was six months later found to have prostate cancer and 19 months later found to have lymphoma,” the researchers wrote.
They later reengineered the Simoa assay to increase its sensitivity, resulting in improved detection of the protein in blood samples from patients with colorectal, gastroesophageal, ovarian, uterine, and breast cancers.
The researchers also employed the test on samples from 19 patients with gastroesophageal cancer to gauge its utility for monitoring therapeutic response. Although this was a small sample, they found that among 13 patients who had responded to therapy, “circulating ORF1p dropped to undetectable levels at follow-up sampling.”
“More Work to Be Done”
The Simoa assay has limitations, the researchers acknowledged. It doesn’t identify the location of cancers, and it “isn’t successful in identifying all cancers and their subtypes,” the press release stated, adding that the test will likely be used in conjunction with other early-detection approaches. The researchers also said they want to gauge the test’s accuracy in larger cohorts.
“The test is very specific, but it doesn’t tell us enough information to be used in a vacuum,” Walt said in the news release. “It’s exciting to see the early success of this ultrasensitive assessment tool, but there is more work to be done.”
More studies will be needed to valid these findings. That this promising new multi-cancer immunoassay is based on a clinical laboratory blood sample means its less invasive and less painful for patients. It’s a good example of an assay that takes a proteomic approach looking for protein cancer biomarkers rather than the genetic approach looking for molecular DNA/RNA biomarkers of cancer.
Scientists believe useful new clinical laboratory assays could be developed by better understanding the huge number of ‘poorly researched’ genes and the proteins they build
Researchers have added a new “-ome” to the long list of -omes. The new -ome is the “unknome.” This is significant for clinical laboratory managers because it is part of an investigative effort to better understand the substantial number of genes, and the proteins they build, that have been understudied and of which little is known about their full function.
The Unknome Database includes “thousands of understudied proteins encoded by genes in the human genome, whose existence is known but whose functions are mostly not,” according to a news release.
The database, which is available to the public and which can be customized by the user, “ranks proteins based on how little is known about them,” the PLOS Biology paper notes.
It should be of interest to pathologists and clinical laboratory scientists. The fruit of this research may identify additional biomarkers useful in diagnosis and for guiding decisions on how to treat patients.
“These uncharacterized genes have not deserved their neglect,” said Sean Munro, PhD (above), MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, in a press release. “Our database provides a powerful, versatile and efficient platform to identify and select important genes of unknown function for analysis, thereby accelerating the closure of the gap in biological knowledge that the unknome represents.” Clinical laboratory scientists may find the Unknome Database intriguing and useful. (Photo copyright: Royal Society.)
Risk of Ignoring Understudied Proteins
Proteomics (the study of proteins) is a rapidly advancing area of clinical laboratory testing. As genetic scientists learn more about proteins and their functions, diagnostics companies use that information to develop new assays. But did you know that researchers tend to focus on only a small fraction of the total number of protein-coding DNA sequences contained in the human genome?
The study of proteomics is primarily interested in the part of the genome that “contains instructions for building proteins … [which] are essential for development, growth, and reproduction across the entire body,” according to Scientific American. These are all protein-coding genes.
Proteomics estimates that there are more than two million proteins in the human body, which are coded for 20,000 to 25,000 genes, according to All the Science.
To build their database, the MRC researchers ranked the “unknome” proteins by how little is known about their functions in cellular processes. When they tested the database, they found some of these less-researched proteins important to biological functions such as development and stress resistance.
“The role of thousands of human proteins remains unclear and yet research tends to focus on those that are already well understood,” said Sean Munro, PhD, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, in the news release. “To help address this we created an Unknome database that ranks proteins based on how little is known about them, and then performed functional screens on a selection of these mystery proteins to demonstrate how ignorance can drive biological discovery.”
In the paper, they acknowledged the human genome encodes about 20,000 proteins, and that the application of transcriptomics and proteomics has “confirmed that most of these new proteins are expressed, and the function of many of them has been identified.
“However,” the authors added, “despite over 20 years of extensive effort, there are also many others that still have no known function.”
They also recognized limited resources for research and that a preference for “relative safety” and “well-established fields” are likely holding back discoveries.
The researchers note “significant” risks to continually ignoring unexplored proteins, which may have roles in cell processes, serve as targets for therapies, and be associated with diseases as well as being “eminently druggable,” Genetic Engineering News reported.
Setting up the Unknome Database
To develop the Unknome Database, the researchers first turned to what has already come to fruition. They gave each protein in the human genome a “knownness” score based on review of existing information about “function, conservation across species, subcellular localization, and other factors,” Interesting Engineering reported.
It turns out, 3,000 groups of proteins (805 with a human protein) scored zero, “showing there’s still much to learn within the human genome,” Science News stated, adding that the Unknome Database catalogues more than 13,000 protein groups and nearly two million proteins.
The researchers then tested the database by using it to determine what could be learned about 260 “mystery” genes in humans that are also present in Drosophila (small fruit flies).
“We used the Unknome Database to select 260 genes that appeared both highly conserved and particularly poorly understood, and then applied functional assays in whole animals that would be impractical at genome-wide scale,” the researchers wrote in PLOS Biology.
“We initially selected all genes that had a knownness score of ≤1.0 and are conserved in both humans and flies, as well as being present in at least 80% of available metazoan genome sequences. … After testing for viability, the nonessential genes were then screened with a panel of quantitative assays designed to reveal potential roles in a wide range of biological functions,” they added.
“Our screen in whole organisms reveals that, despite several decades of extensive genetic screens in Drosophila, there are many genes with essential roles that have eluded characterization,” the researchers conclude.
Clinical Laboratory Testing Using the Unknome Database
Future use of the Unknome Database may involve CRISPR technology to explore functions of unknown genes, according to the PLOS Biology paper.
Munro told Science News the research team may work with other research efforts aimed at understanding “mysterious proteins,” such as the Understudied Proteins Initiative.
The Unknome Database’s ability to be customized by others means researchers can create their own “knownness” scores as it applies to their studies. Thus, the database could be a resource in studies of treatments or medications to fight diseases, Chemistry World noted.
According to a statement prepared for Healthcare Dive by SomaLogic, a Boulder, Colorado-based protein biomarker company, diagnostic tests that measure proteins can be applied to diseases and conditions such as:
“The 27-protein model has potential as a ‘universal’ surrogate end point for cardiovascular risk,” the researchers wrote in Science Translational Medicine.
Proteomics definitely has its place in clinical laboratory testing. The development of MRC-LMB’s Unknome Database will help researchers’ increase their knowledge about the functions of more proteins which should in turn lead to new diagnostic assays for labs.
The research also could lead to a better understanding of how short tandem repeats (STRs)—the number of times a gene is copied into RNA for protein use—affect gene expression as well, according to Stanford.
“We’ve known for a while that short tandem repeats or STRs, aren’t junk because their presence or absence correlates with changes in gene expression. But we haven’t known how they exert these effects,” said study lead Polly Fordyce, PhD (above), Associate Professor of Bioengineering and Genetics at Stanford University, in a news release. The research could lead to new clinical laboratory biomarkers for genetic testing. (Photo copyright: Stanford University.)
“Researchers have spent a lot of time characterizing these transcription factors and figuring out which sequences—called motifs—they like to bind to the most,” said the study lead Polly Fordyce, PhD, Associate Professor of Bioengineering and Genetics at Stanford University, in a Stanford Medicine news release.
“But current models don’t adequately explain where and when transcription factors bind to non-coding DNA to regulate gene expression. Sometimes, no transcription factor is attached to something that looks like a perfect motif. Other times, transcription factors bind to stretches of DNA that aren’t motifs,” the news release explains.
Transcription factors are “like light switches that can turn genes on or off depending on what cells need,” notes a King’s College LondonEDIT Labblog post.
But why do transcription factors target some places in the genome and not others?
“To solve the puzzle of why transcription factors go to some places in the genome and not to others, we needed to look beyond the highly preferred motifs,” Fordyce added. “In this study, we’re showing that the STR sequence around the motif can have a really big effect on transcription factor binding, providing clues as to what these repeated sequences might be doing.”
Such information could aid in understanding certain hereditary conditions and diseases.
“Variations in STR length have been associated with changes in gene expression and implicated in several complex phenotypes such as schizophrenia, cancer, autism, and Crohn’s disease. However, the mechanism by which STRs affect transcription remains unknown,” the researchers wrote in Science.
Special Assays Explore Binding
According to their paper, the research team turned to the Fordyce Lab’s previously developed microfluidic binding assays (MITOMI, k–MITOMI, and STAMMP) to analyze the impact of different DNA sequences on transcription factor binding.
“In the experiment we asked, ‘How do these changes impact the strength of transcription factor binding?’ We saw a surprisingly large effect. Varying the STR sequence around a motif can have a 70-fold impact on the binding,” Fordyce wrote.
“This research unveils, for the first time, the intricate connection between how variants in the non-coding genome affect genes that are associated with blood pressure and with hypertension. What we’ve created is a kind of functional map of the regulators of blood pressure genes, “said Philipp Maass, PhD, Lead Researcher and Assistant Professor Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, in a news release.
The findings could aid precision medicine for cardiovascular health and may possibly be adopted to other conditions, according to The Hospital for Sick Children.
“The variants we have characterized in the non-coding genome could be used as genomic markers for hypertension, laying the groundwork for future genetic research and potential therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease,” Maass noted.
Why All the ‘Junk’ DNA?
Clinical laboratory scientists may wonder why genetic research has primarily focused on 20,000 genes within the genome, leaving the “junk” DNA for later investigation. So did researchers at Harvard University.
“After the Human Genome Project, scientists found that there were around 20,000 genes within the genome, a number that some researchers had already predicted. Remarkably, these genes comprise only about 1-2% of the three billion base pairs of DNA. This means that anywhere from 98-99% of our entire genome must be doing something other than coding for proteins,” they wrote in a blog post.
“Imagine being given multiple volumes of encyclopedias that contained a coherent sentence in English every 100 pages, where the rest of the space contained a smattering of uninterpretable random letters and characters. You would probably start to wonder why all those random letters and characters were there in the first place, which is the exact problem that has plagued scientists for decades,” they added.
Not only is junk DNA an interesting study subject, but ongoing research may also produce useful new biomarkers for genetic diagnostics and other clinical laboratory testing. Thus, medical lab professionals may want to keep an eye on new developments involving non-coding DNA.
This “Virus Trap” might eventually be manufactured by clinical laboratories for the diagnostic process
Clinical laboratory managers and pathologists will be fascinated by this new treatment coming out of Germany for viral infections. It’s an entirely different technology approach to locating and neutralizing live viruses that may eventually be able to control anti-viral-resistant strains of specific viruses as well.
As virologists and microbiologists are aware, even in our present era of technological and medical advances, viral infections are extremely difficult to treat. There are currently no effective antidotes against most viral infections and antibiotics are only successful in fighting bacterial infections.
DNA origami is the nanoscale folding of DNA to create two- and three-dimensional complex shapes that can be manufactured with a high degree of precision at the nanoscale. Researchers have been working with and enhancing this technique for about 15 years.
However, scientists at TUM wondered if they could create such hollow structures based on the capsules that encompass viruses to entrap those viruses. They developed a method that made it possible to create artificial hollow bodies the size of a virus and explored using those hollow bodies as a type of “virus trap.”
The researchers theorized that if those hollow bodies could be lined on the inside with virus-binding molecules, they could tightly bind the viruses and remove them from circulation. For this method to be successful, however, those hollow bodies had to have large enough openings to ensure the viruses could get into the shells.
“None of the objects that we had built using DNA origami technology at that time would have been able to engulf a whole virus—they were simply too small,” said Hendrik Dietz, PhD, Professor of Physics at TUM and an author of the study in a press release. “Building stable hollow bodies of this size was a huge challenge,” he added.
So, the team of researchers used the icosahedron geometric shape, which is an object comprised of 20 sides. They engineered the hollow bodies for their virus trap from three-dimensional, triangular plates which had to have slightly beveled edges to ensure the binding points would assemble properly to the desired objects.
“In this way, we can now program the shape and size of the desired objects using the exact shape of the triangular plates,” Dietz explained. “We can now produce objects with up to 180 subunits and achieve yields of up to 95%. The route there was, however, quite rocky, with many iterations.”
By varying the binding points on the edges of the triangles, the scientists were able to create closed hollow spheres and spheres with openings or half-shells that could be utilized as virus traps. They successfully tested their virus traps on adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and hepatitis B viruses in cell cultures.
“Even a simple half-shell of the right size shows a measurable reduction in virus activity,” Dietz stated in the press release. “If we put five binding sites for the virus on the inside—for example suitable antibodies—we can already block the virus by 80%. If we incorporate more, we achieve complete blocking.”
The team irradiated their finished building blocks with ultraviolet (UV) light and then treated the outside with polyethylene glycol and oligolysine. This process prevented the DNA particles from being immediately degraded in body fluids. Those particles were stable in mouse serum for 24 hours. The TUM scientists plan to test their building blocks on living mice soon.
“We are very confident that this material will also be well tolerated by the human body,” Dietz said.
Could Clinical Laboratories Manufacture Components of the Virus Traps?
The researchers noted that the starting materials for their virus traps can be mass produced at a very reasonable cost and may have other uses.
“In addition to the proposed application as a virus trap, our programmable system also creates other opportunities,” Dietz said. “It would also be conceivable to use it as a multivalentantigen carrier for vaccinations, as a DNA or RNA carrier for gene therapy, or as a transport vehicle for drugs.”
There is much research yet to be done on this cutting-edge technology. However, for this therapy to be appropriate for a patient, a specimen of the virus will need to be identified and studied. Then, the DNA origami would be tailored to capture that specific virus. Thus, it’s conceivable that clinical laboratories, if used for the diagnostic step, might also be able to then manufacture the virus trap that is customized to locate, surround, and neutralize that specific virus.
Molecular probes designed to spot minute amounts of pathogens in biological samples may aid clinical laboratories’ speed-to-answer
Driven to find a better way to isolate minute samples of pathogens from among high-volumes of other biological organisms, researchers at Canada’s McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, have unveiled a bioinformatics algorithm which they claim shortens time-to-answer and speeds diagnosis of deadly diseases.
Two disease pathogens the researchers specifically targeted in their study are responsible for sepsis and SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus causing COVID-19. Clinical laboratories would welcome a technology which both shortens time-to-answer and improves diagnostic accuracy, particularly for pathogens such as sepsis and SARS-CoV-2.
Their design of molecular probes that target the genomic sequences of specific pathogens can enable diagnosticians and clinical laboratories to spot extremely small amounts of viral and bacterial pathogens in patients’ biological samples, as well as in the environment and wildlife.
“There are thousands of bacterial pathogens and being able to determine which one is present in a patient’s blood sample could lead to the correct treatment faster when time is very important,” Zachery Dickson, a lead author of the study, told Brighter World. Dickson is a bioinformatics PhD candidate in the Department of Biology at McMaster University. “The probe makes identification much faster, meaning we could potentially save people who might otherwise die,” he added.
Sepsis is a life-threatening response to infection that leads to organ failure, tissue damage, and death in hospitals worldwide. According to Sepsis Alliance, about 30% of people diagnosed with severe sepsis will die without quick and proper treatment. Thus, a “shortcut” to identifying sepsis in its early stages may well save many lives, the McMaster researchers noted.
And COVID-19 has killed millions. Such a tool that identifies sepsis and SARS-CoV-2 in minute biological samples would be a boon to hospital medical laboratories worldwide.
Is Bioinformatics ‘Shortcut’ Faster than PCR Testing?
The researchers say their probes enable a shortcut to detection—even in an infection’s early stages—by “targeting, isolating, and identifying the DNA sequences specifically and simultaneously.”
The probes’ design makes possible simultaneous targeted capture of diverse metagenomics targets, Biocompare explained.
But is it faster than PCR (polymerase chain reaction) testing?
The McMaster scientists were motivated by the “challenges of low signal, high background, and uncertain targets that plague many metagenomic sequencing efforts,” they noted in their paper.
They pointed to challenges posed by PCR testing, a popular technique used for detection of sepsis pathogens as well as, more recently, for SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus causing COVID-19.
“The (PCR) technique relies on primers that bind to nucleic acid sequences specific to an organism or group of organisms. Although capable of sensitive, rapid detection and quantification of a particular target, PCR is limited when multiple loci are targeted by primers,” the researchers wrote in Cell Reports Methods.
According to LabMedica, “A wide array of metagenomic study efforts are hampered by the same challenge: low concentrations of targets of interest combined with overwhelming amounts of background signal. Although PCR or naive DNA capture can be used when there are a small number of organisms of interest, design challenges become untenable for large numbers of targets.”
Detecting Pathogens Faster, Cheaper, and More Accurately
As part of their study, researchers tested two probe sets:
one to target bacterial pathogens linked to sepsis, and
another to detect coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2.
They were successful in using the probes to capture a variety of pathogens linked to sepsis and SARS-CoV-2.
“We validated HUBDesign by generating probe sets targeting the breadth of coronavirus diversity, as well as a suite of bacterial pathogens often underlying sepsis. In separate experiments demonstrating significant, simultaneous enrichment, we captured SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 [Human coronavirus NL 63] in a human RNA background and seven bacterial strains in human blood. HUBDesign has broad applicability wherever there are multiple organisms of interest,” the researchers wrote in Cell Reports Methods.
The findings also have implications to the environment and wildlife, the researchers noted.
Of course, more research is needed to validate the tool’s usefulness in medical diagnostics. The McMaster University researchers intend to improve HUBDesign’s efficiency but note that probes cannot be designed for unknown targets.
Nevertheless, the advanced application of novel technologies to diagnose of sepsis, which causes 250,000 deaths in the US each year, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is a positive development worth watching.
The McMaster scientists’ discoveries—confirmed by future research and clinical studies—could go a long way toward ending the dire effects of sepsis as well as COVID-19. That would be a welcome development, particularly for hospital-based laboratories.