Developers believe participants will be interested in controlling how their private health data is provided to medical laboratories, drug companies, research organizations, and the federal government, while also earning an income
Bitcoins for blood tests, anyone? A new venture is examining the idea of exchanging cryptocurrency, a digital asset, for the results of weekly clinical laboratory tests and photographs of body parts from healthcare consumers. If successful, in a couple of years, people might be able to earn a “basic income” from selling their private health data to pharmaceutical companies, medical laboratories, research organizations, the federal government, and more.
Insilico Medicine, a Baltimore developer of artificial intelligence (AI) solutions for research and pharmaceutical companies, and the Bitfury Group, a blockchain technology company based in Amsterdam, Holland, are working together on the project they call Longenesis, a blockchain-based platform that uses AI to collect, store, manage, and trade data, such as medical records and health data.
Marketing Human Life Data
The two participants presented their novel idea this past November in Taipei, Taiwan, at the TaiwanChain Blockchain Summit. They published their report in Oncotarget, an open-access biomedical journal that covers oncology research. The authors of the paper believe blockchain and AI technologies could support patients and physicians in working with medical data.
“There are many companies engaged in the marketplaces of human life data with billions of dollars in turnover. However, the advances in AI and blockchain allow returning the control of this data back to the individual and make this data useful in the many new ways,” Alex Zhavoronkov, PhD, founder of Insilico Medicine, told Cryptovest.
“I would love to live in a world where I’m motivated to regularly take all kinds of medical tests for free, I get the data back, and I will be able to sell this data to the marketplace, and I earn all kinds of goods and services—primarily health related,” Zhavoronkov told Motherboard.
Exchanging Human Biomarkers for Digital Coin
Alexander Zhavoronkov, PhD, Founder and CEO of Insilico Medicine, told Motherboard, “Right now, it’s difficult to predict. But I think that if [users] submit blood tests, pictures, transcriptomes let’s say on a weekly basis, you probably will be able to earn a good universal basic income.” Zhavoronkov is describing a new business model involving clinical laboratory testing. (Photo copyright: Insilico Medicine.)
Combining blockchain and AI technologies is one of the many emerging technological advances emerging to enhance the medical and pharmaceutical industries.
“Recent advances in machine intelligence turned almost every data into health data. The many data types can now be combined in the new ways: one data type can be inferred from another data type and systems learning to optimize the lifestyle for the desired health trajectory can now be developed using the very basic and abundant data,” noted Polina Mamoshina, research scientist at Pharma AI, a division of Insilico Medicine, during the company’s presentation at TaiwanChain. “Pollen, weather, and other data about the environment can now be combined with the human biomarkers to uncover and minimize the allergic response among the myriad of examples. People should be able to take control over this data.”
Because pharmaceutical companies rely on data mining to obtain individual demographic information and medical records, the growth potential for this type of product is huge.
Clinical Laboratory Test Results Earn LifePound Tokens
Longenesis is still being tested, but Zhavoronkov hopes it will be ready for the public within the next two years. The plan is to utilize blockchain technology to collect and store patient medical data in exchange for their cryptocurrency, known as LifePound.
According to the Longenesis website, “Longenesis is a marketplace, which uses personal health data, transformed into a LifePound token. LifePound is used inside a marketplace as a monetary system, powered by Exonum blockchain technology to keep data secure and transparent. Tokens are distributed between Longenesis marketplace members and are used for transactions between the following elements:
- Data providers;
- Customers; and the,
- Stock cryptocurrency market.
The developers believe the “Longenesis Data Marketplace will be able to provide new insights in the fields of healthcare research and development. It will provide analysis and recommendations to pharmaceutical companies to help develop new drugs.”
It’s too early to predict whether Longenesis will be successful and catch on with the public. However, the popularity of cryptocurrency, and the opportunity to earn an income from one’s clinical laboratory data, could encourage individuals to participate in this type of endeavor.
In addition, this is a highly unusual and unexpected approach to encourage consumers to undergo regular medical laboratory testing in order to earn payment by a digital currency. It is a reminder of how rapid advances in a myriad of technologies are going to make it possible for entrepreneurs to create new business models that involve clinical laboratory tests and the data produced by such tests.
This Biotech Company Wants You to Give It Selfies and Blood Tests in Exchange for Cryptocurrency
A Decentralized Medical Record Marketplace Powered by Human Data
Blockchain, AI Could Spur Biomedical Research, Insilico Medicine Says
Converging Blockchain and Next-generation Artificial Intelligence Technologies to Decentralize and Accelerate Biomedical Research and Healthcare
Medical laboratory inpatient test volume may continue to decline as the Medicare hospital readmission reduction program expands in 2017 and state population health programs garner funding
We are now several years into the Medicare program that is designed to reduce hospital readmissions. Statistics from these years show encouraging progress in reducing the readmission rate of Medicare patients. This is a trend that has important implications for all hospital-based clinical laboratories.
Hospitals are the most expensive site of care in the entire healthcare system. In its ongoing battle to reduce healthcare costs, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a carrot-and-stick program called the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) aimed at lowering hospital readmission rates nationwide.
Established in 2013 by the Affordable Care Act (also known as Obamacare), the HRRP lowers reimbursements to acute care hospitals that have high rates of Medicare readmissions within 30 days of initial discharge, and increases reimbursements to hospitals that lower their readmission rates, a March 2017 Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) Issue Brief explained.
And, according to the KFF, these programs are having an impact. Readmission rates dropped by 8% nationwide as hospitals found ways to avoid the stiff financial penalties and earn the financial rewards. Additionally, patients are increasingly choosing ambulatory care settings, or to receive care at home, rather than re-entering hospitals. This has lowered states’ readmission rates even further.
From a healthcare cost perspective, this is good news. However, these programs have had unintentional consequences as well. The federal initiatives and state population health programs responsible for lowering readmission rates also directly impact medical laboratories by simultaneously reducing the flow of inpatient testing volume.
At the same time, clinicians at the nation’s hospitals—in their efforts to avoid readmissions—have a motive to become more effective at ordering the right medical laboratory test at the right time, and to use the lab test results to more effectively treat the patient. Thus, for the nation’s hospital labs, the Medicare program to reduce readmissions has both an upside and a downside.
Programs, Data Mining That Help Providers Avoid Readmissions
Hospitals nationwide are operating programs aimed at attracting federal financial rewards for keeping people healthy, and from being admitted to hospitals due to conditions that could have been prevented, USA Today reported.
One such program involves Christiana Care Health System (Christiana Care) of Wilmington, DE. Christiana Care implemented CMS’ Care Link transitions program through the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI), also known as The Innovation Center, which, “supports the development and testing of innovative healthcare payment and service delivery models.”
The provider experienced a 20% drop in patients being readmitted within 30 days of surgery, due to its “bundled payment” plan for heart failure, the USA Today article noted. Hip and knee replacement readmissions were down 25% 30 days after discharge as well.
“Without the funding we got through CMMI, it’s hard to imagine we’d be in the position we’re in today,” stated Janice Nevin, MD, CEO of Christiana Care.
Janice Nevin, MD (above), CEO of Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, DE, is concerned that the upcoming changes to the ACA will affect the funding the healthcare provider has received from the CMS Innovation Center. “I would strongly urge that we keep the commitment to CMMI (because) you have to innovate to learn,” she told USA Today. (Photo copyright: Christiana Care Health System.)
Changes to HRRP for Dual-Eligibles Could Affect Penalties
Some patients are more expensive than others. Patients who draw both Medicare and Medicaid funding simultaneously, for example. These “dual-eligibles” are disproportionately expensive for hospitals to treat, reported Modern Healthcare.
In fact, they are just 18% of CMS beneficiaries, but accounted for one-third of all Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) spending in 2013, according to a Medicare Payment Advisory Commission June 2016 demographic report.
CMS is proposing to adjust penalties in the HRRP to reflect the proportion of patients who are dual-eligible, presumably hoping the change will both lower costs and reduce penalties on healthcare providers.
Hospital Readmissions Data from 49 States
CMS data show that between 2010 and 2015 hospital readmission rates fell by 8%, reported Healthcare Finance News. Other key data recently released by CMS and reported by Healthcare Finance News:
· 49 states reduced avoidable hospital readmission rates since 2010;
· Vermont’s readmission rate rose slightly from 15.3% in 2010 to 15.4% in 2015;
· In 43 states, readmission rates fell by more than 5%;
· 11 states had a more than 10% drop in readmission rates;
· The fall in readmission rate translates to about 104,000 hospital readmissions avoided for Medicare beneficiaries in 2015 and 565,000 readmissions averted since 2010; and
· Avoidable admissions, occurring within 30 days of initial discharges, account for more than $17 billion in Medicare annual expenditures.
Action Steps for Clinical Laboratories
Pathologists and lab leaders need to efficiently work with colleagues, especially when caring for hospitalized patients with conditions relative to the HRRP. Clear and patient-friendly discharge instructions for diagnostics are important. And, the lab’s coordination with post-acute-care providers, such as skilled nursing facilities, on follow-up testing is key to avoiding unnecessary readmissions.
Regardless, medical laboratory inpatient test volume will likely continue to decline. As Dark Daily readers know, the decline in inpatient testing is associated with more than just the HRRP. The transition to new models of integrated care that has taken place over the last few years is also a factor, as Dark Daily reported in “Falling Inpatient Revenues at Many Hospitals is Sign of Healthcare’s Transition to New Models of Integrated Care and Changes in Medical Laboratory Test Utilization.”
Medical laboratory directors and sales teams are advised to continue their efforts at boosting outpatient volume to fill the inpatient void.
—Donna Marie Pocius
Hospitals Work to Keep Patients from Being Admitted
Aiming for Fewer Hospital U-Turns: The Medicare Hospital Readmission Reduction Program
49 States, DC Reduce Avoidable Hospital Readmissions
Dual-eligibles: The Next Target in Hospital Readmissions Penalties
June 2016 Data Book, Section 2: Medicare Beneficiary Demographics
Hospitals Mine Clinical Data to Help Reduce Costs and Avoid Readmissions, Creating Opportunities for Clinical Laboratories and Pathologists to Contribute to Improved Patient Outcomes
Falling Inpatient Revenues at Many Hospitals is Sign of Healthcare’s Transition to New Models of Integrated Care and Changes in Medical Laboratory Test Utilization
Despite blinding data and following protocols, a recent investigation in Bloomberg Businessweek shows that clinical laboratories can be at risk in deals with pharmaceutical and big data companies
While big data is transforming how healthcare is both researched and applied, it also offers opportunities for clinical laboratories to create additional revenue from the endless streams of data generated by diagnostic tests and genetic assays. However, these opportunities come at a cost.
Data mining and pharmaceutical companies are turning to medical laboratories for blinded data (patients’ names are removed) to aid in their research and marketing efforts. Although the data is blinded to adhere to consumer privacy protocols, a story on the biopharmaceutical company Alexion (NASDAQ:ALXN) in Bloomberg Businessweek shows how clinical laboratories may be at risk for civil and legal ramifications, as well as public relation concerns.
When Blinded Patient Data Is Not Blind
Despite requirements to anonymize medical data, the increased computing and data collection abilities of data mining companies make it possible to bridge gaps in information by collating multiple data sources. Companies then can make assumptions about the data with relative accuracy.
With Alexion’s drug Soliris, the blinded data was enough to locate healthcare professionals treating patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a rare disease of the blood, and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) a rare disease of the immune system.
Cover of the Bloomberg Businessweek issue containing the article on Pharmaceutical companies’ use of blinded patient data for marketing high-cost “orphan drugs” that were developed to treat just one specific rare disease. (Photo copyright: Bloomberg Businessweek.)
On the surface, this seems like an ideal example of how making clinical laboratory and pathology data available to companies can be beneficial to patients and a victory for healthcare.
However, the Bloomberg Businessweek article highlights a darker side of the issue, noting, “Alexion set out to persuade doctors to test more frequently for PNH and aHUS—and to find a way to glimpse these test results, which traditionally have been shared only among the patient, the doctor ordering the test, and the lab.”
Liability and Risk in Age of Big Data
By reaching out to doctors and encouraging them to route lab tests to preferred medical laboratories with which they allegedly had partnered, Alexion could collect information and compare it to their database to pinpoint opportunities to sell their orphan drug Soliris. An orphan drug contains a unique pharmaceutical agent that was developed to treat a specific rare disease.
Five clinical laboratory companies are named in the story. While these laboratories might have followed regulations and the partnerships might be legal, news stories such as these could result in public relations crises and damaged reputations.
According to the Bloomberg Businessweek article, Alexion is resolving legal or regulatory concerns in at least seven countries. Though there is no precedent for medical laboratories assuming liability or being implicated in the crimes of a company to which they sold blinded data, the possibility exists.
Increased Scrutiny as Privacy Becomes a Public Concern
Healthcare big data continues to unlock new opportunities and create new approaches in treating disease and improving health around the world. However, as the public gains awareness of how healthcare big data is collected, shared, and used, greater scrutiny of how the data is handled, and the parties involved, will likely follow.
Dark Daily reported on the balancing act faced by laboratories in a 2016 e-briefing titled, “Trading in Medical Data: Is this a Headache or an Opportunity for Pathologists and Clinical Laboratories?”
That e-briefing cites a Scientific American article in which author Adam Tanner, a fellow at Harvard University’s Institute for Quantitative Social Science, states, “At present, the system is so opaque that many doctors, nurses, and patients are unaware that the information they record or divulge in an electronic health record, or the results from lab tests they request or consent to, may be anonymized and sold.”
In a similar story, Ancestry recently experienced how fast opinions can shift when certain online publications questioned the terms and conditions of the company’s AncestryDNA service. In a matter of days, the service went from an interesting example of consumer genomics to a trending topic on social media.
In the Slate article “Who Owns Your Genetic Data After a Home DNA Test?,” author Jacob Brogan notes, “Even if Ancestry maintains its current commitment to protecting its customers’ data, its willingness to profit from that information may raise red flags for the future of consumer genetic testing.”
While Ancestry might resolve its immediate troubles with an update to its terms of service governing how and when it sells the genetic information of its customers, the hit to the company’s reputation could continue to impact its business. This is something the five clinical lab companies affiliated with Alexion and named in the Bloomberg Businessweek story may be experiencing as well.
As competition increases and clinical laboratories work to cultivate and improve revenue streams and reduce costs, it remains important to stay ahead of trends—and public opinion—by choosing partnerships carefully and remaining transparent about how patient data is collected, shared or sold, and used.
When the Patient Is a Gold Mine: The Trouble With Rare-disease Drugs
Your Medical Data Is for Sale, and There’s Nothing You Can Do About It
How Data Brokers Make Money Off Your Medical Records
Who Owns Your Genetic Data After a Home DNA Test?
Medical laboratory test data is one cornerstone of this data mining activity and pathologists are well-positioned to take a more prominent role in helping clinicians use lab tests more effectively
Data mining has arrived at many hospitals and health systems. The goal is to mine large quantities of clinical data to identify useful patterns that can guide clinicians to intervene with specific patients. This trend creates a big opportunity for pathology informaticians to step forward and contribute to improved patient care in significant ways.
Progressive healthcare networks, such as the Carolinas HealthCare System, are creating a lot of buzz for their aggressive and smart use of technology and data. The idea is to ultimately reinvent care—in response to new payment schemes—by preventing acute and critical episodes that may require inappropriate readmissions. (more…)