News, Analysis, Trends, Management Innovations for
Clinical Laboratories and Pathology Groups

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News, Analysis, Trends, Management Innovations for
Clinical Laboratories and Pathology Groups

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Where Are the Patients? Hospitals and Clinical Laboratories Wonder When Routine Surgeries, Procedures, and Testing Can Be Restarted Once the COVID-19 Outbreak Eases

Even as some states lift stay-at-home orders, clinical laboratories and pathology groups face uncertainty about how quickly routine daily test referrals will return to normal, pre-pandemic levels

Although strokes and heart attacks do not take vacations, a large and growing number of patients with serious health issues who—in normal times—would require immediate attention are not contacting providers to get needed care. Instead, they are avoiding hospital emergency rooms and clinical laboratories for fear they’ll contract the COVID-19 coronavirus.

Starting in early March, hospitals nationwide suspended elective surgeries and procedures and reduced non-COVID-19 inpatient care to make beds available for the predicted on-rush of COVID-19 patients. However, in parts of the country, the predicted high demand for hospital beds and ventilators failed to materialize. Additionally, due to shelter-in-place orders, patients in many states postponed routine office visits with their primary care physicians.

The collective collapse in the number of elective services provided by hospitals, and the fall-off in patients visiting their doctors, is crushing the financial stability of the nation’s clinical laboratory industry.

In, “From Mid-March, Labs Saw Big Drop in Revenue,” Dark Daily’s sister publication, The Dark Report (TDR) reported on the revenue challenges facing clinical pathology groups and clinical laboratories. Kyle Fetter, Executive Vice President and General Manager of Diagnostic Services at XIFIN, a revenue cycle management company, told TDR that starting in the third week of March, labs suffered a steep decline in routine testing. By the end of March, that fall-off in revenue ranged from 44% for some AP specimens to 70% to 80% for some specialty AP work. During these same weeks, XIFIN’s data showed clinical labs experienced a drop in routine testing volume of 58%, hospital outreach testing declined by 61%, and molecular lab volume went down by 52%.

Using data from multiple sources, The Dark Report estimates that—compared to pre-pandemic levels—the clinical laboratory profession lost almost $900 million in revenue each week—or about $5.2 billion as of April 26. (See Dark Daily, “COVID-19 Triggers a Cash Flow Crash at Clinical Labs Totaling US $5.2 Billion in Past Seven Weeks; Many Labs Are at Brink of Financial Collapse,” May 4, 2020.)

Can Clinical Laboratories Hang on Financially Until COVID-19 Goes Away?

Though most states have not met the nonbinding criteria recommended by the Trump administration for reopening, nearly 40 governors in early May began loosening stay-at-home orders, reported CNN, including allowing elective medical procedures to resume.

Patients may make up for lost time by returning to doctors’ offices for medical laboratory tests and other COVID-19-delayed procedures, and as this happens, clinical laboratories may experience a surge in routine test orders from doctors’ offices and hospital admissions once stay-at-home orders are lifted and fear of COVID-19 has passed.

According to an article published on Axios, a survey of 163 physicians conducted by SVB Leerink—an investment firm that specializes in healthcare and life sciences—found that “roughly three out of four doctors believe patient appointments will resume to normal, pre-coronavirus levels, no earlier than July, and 45% expect a rebound to occur sometime between July and September.” If so, the financial squeeze facing clinical laboratories, pathology groups, and other medical and dental professionals may continue to loosen.

Christopher Freer, DO, an emergency physician at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx and Director of Emergency Medicine at RWJ Barnabas Health
Christopher Freer, DO (above), an emergency physician at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx and Director of Emergency Medicine at RWJBarnabas Health, told CNBC that emergency departments are seeing patients with severe issues, such as stroke and appendicitis, but that those with milder symptoms appear to be staying away. “Even with coronavirus, we still have healthy people who get an illness and need to go to the emergency room,” he said. “Heart attacks don’t stop.” (Photo copyright: USA Today.)

Hospital Finances Are Being Particularly Stressed by Loss of Patients

The impact of stay-at-home orders on hospital systems, in particular, has been dramatic. CNBC reported that RWJBarnabas Health, an 1l-hospital 22-laboratory health system in New Jersey that has 11 emergency departments, totaled just 180 emergency room visits per day during a mid-April weekend, a sharp decline from their 280-per-day-average.

A recent Washington Post article paints an even bleaker picture. Clinicians in the United States, Spain, United Kingdom, and China anecdotally report a “silent sub-epidemic of people who need care at hospitals but dare not come in,” the article states, noting people with symptoms of appendicitis, heart attacks, stroke, infected gall bladders, and bowel obstructions are avoiding hospital emergency rooms.

“Everybody is frightened to come to the ER,” Mount Sinai Health System cardiovascular surgeon John Puskas, MD, told the Post. Though his 60-bed cardiac unit had been repurposed to care for COVID-19 patients, Puskas said the New York hospital system was seeing “dramatically fewer” cardiac patients. 

Concerned that patients may be ignoring signs of heart attack or stroke rather than go to a hospital, the American College of Cardiology launched the “CardioSmart” campaign, which urges anyone experiencing heart symptoms to get prompt treatment and to continue routine appointments, using telehealth technology when available.

“Hospitals have safety measures to protect you from infection,” the CardioSmart website states. “Getting care quickly is critical. You’ll get better faster, and you’ll limit damage to your health.”

However, David Brown, MD, Chief of Emergency Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, argues the number of people having heart-related issues is unlikely to have dropped during the pandemic.

“Strokes and heart attacks don’t take a vacation just because there’s a pandemic,” Brown told The Boston Globe. “They’re still happening. They just aren’t happening as much inside the hospital, which is a major concern to me.”

Many healthcare professionals are worried about the long-term effect from pandemic-delayed preventative and elective procedures.

“The big question is are we going to see a lot more people that have bad outcomes from heart disease, from stroke, from cancer because they’ve put off what they should have had done, but were too afraid to come to the hospital?” Providence St. Joseph Health CEO Rod Hochman, MD, told CNBC.

Hochman, who is Chair-elect of the American Hospital Association (AHA), maintains the aftereffects of people putting off elective surgeries and screening procedures like colonoscopies and mammograms may be felt for years to come.

“We’re possibly going to see a blip in other disease entities as a consequence of doubling down on COVID-19,” he told CNBC.

In clinical laboratories, COVID-19 testing may have somewhat helped offset the drop in routine testing volume. However, the pandemic’s overall financial costs to labs and pathology groups will likely be felt for months to years, as patients slowly return to healthcare providers’ offices and hospitals.

—Andrea Downing Peck

Related Information:

From Mid-March, Labs Saw Big Drop in Revenue

Opening Up America Again

Doctors Worry the Coronavirus Is Keeping Patients Away from U.S. Hospitals as ER Visits Drop: ‘Heart Attacks Don’t Stop.’

When Doctors Think Patient Visits Will Rebound

Coronavirus and Your Heart: Don’t Ignore Heart Symptoms

‘Strokes and Heart Attacks Don’t Take a Vacation.’ So Why Have Emergency Department Visits Sharply Declined?

This is Where All 50 States Stand on Reopening

COVID-19 Triggers a Cash Flow Crash at Clinical Labs Totaling US $5.2 Billion in Past Seven Weeks; Many Labs Are at Brink of Financial Collapse

Two Boston Health Systems Enter the Growing Direct-to-Consumer Gene Sequencing Market by Opening Preventative Genomics Clinics, but Can Patients Afford the Service?

By offering DTC preventative gene sequencing, hospital leaders hope to help physicians better predict cancer risk and provide more accurate diagnoses

Two Boston health systems, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), are the latest to open preventative gene sequencing clinics and compete with consumer gene sequencing companies, such as 23andMe and Ancestry, as well as with other hospital systems that already provide similar services.

This may provide opportunities for clinical laboratories. However, some experts are concerned that genetic sequencing may not be equally available to patients of all socioeconomic classes. Nor is it clear how health systems plan to pay for the equipment and services, since health insurance companies continue to deny coverage for “elective” gene sequencing, or when there is not a “clear medical reason for it, such as for people with a long family history of cancer,” notes STAT.

Therefore, not everyone is convinced of the value of gene sequencing to either patients or hospitals, even though advocates tout gene sequencing as a key element of precision medicine.

Is Preventative Genetic Sequencing Ready for the Masses?

Brigham’s Preventive Genomics Clinic offers comprehensive DNA sequencing, interpretation, and risk reporting to both adults and children. And MGH “plans to launch its own clinic for adults that will offer elective sequencing at a similar price range as the Brigham,” STAT reported.

The Brigham and MGH already offer similar gene sequencing services as other large health systems, such as Mayo Clinic and University of California San Francisco (UCSF), which are primarily used for research and cancer diagnoses and range in price depending on the depth of the scan, interpretation of the results, and storage options.

However, some experts question whether offering the technology to consumers for preventative purposes will benefit anyone other than a small percentage of patients.

“It’s clearly not been demonstrated to be cost-effective to promote this on a societal basis,” Robert Green, MD, MPH, medical geneticist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and professor of genetics at Harvard, told STAT. “The question that’s hard to answer is whether there are long-term benefits that justify those healthcare costs—whether the sequencing itself, the physician visit, and any downstream testing that’s stimulated will be justified by the situations where you can find and prevent disease.”

Additionally, large medical centers typically charge more for genomic scans than consumer companies such as 23andMe and Ancestry. Hospital-based sequencing may be out of the reach of many consumers, and this concerns some experts.

“The idea that genomic sequencing is only going to be accessible by wealthy, well-educated patrons who can pay out of pocket is anathema to the goals of the publicly funded Human Genome Project,” Jonathan Berg, MD, PhD, Genetics Professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, told Scientific American.

Nevertheless, consumer interest in preventative genetic sequencing is increasing and large health systems want a piece of the market. At the same time, genetics companies are reducing their costs and passing that reduction on to their customers. (See Dark Daily, “Veritas Genetics Drops Its Price for Clinical-Grade Whole-Genome Sequencing to $599, as Gene Sequencing Costs Continue to Fall,” October 23, 2018.)

Providers Go Direct to Consumers with Gene Sequencing

Healthcare providers and clinical laboratories played an important part in the growth of the Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing, a market which the American Hospital Association (AHA) predicts is on track to expand dramatically over the next decade. BIS Research foresees a $6.3 billion valuation of the DTC genetic test market by 2028, according to a news release.

And, according to the American Journal of Managed Care, “It’s estimated that by 2021, 100 million people will have used a direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic test. As these tests continue to gain popularity, there is a need for educating consumers on their DTC testing results and validating these results with confirmatory testing in a medical-grade laboratory.”

This is why it’s critical that clinical laboratories and anatomic pathology groups have a genetic testing and gene sequencing strategy, as Dark Daily reported.

David Bick, MD, Chief Medical Officer at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology and Medical Director of the Smith Family Clinic for Genomic Medicine, told Scientific American, “there’s just more and more interest from patients and families not only because of 23andMe and the like, but because there’s just this understanding that if you can find out information about your health before you become sick, then really our opportunity as physicians to do something to help you is much greater.”

In an article he penned for Medium, Robert Green, MD, MPH (shown above counseling a patient), medical geneticist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and professor of genetics at Harvard, wrote, “The ultimate aim of our Genomes2People Research Program is to contribute to the transformation of medicine from reactive to proactive, from treatment-oriented to preventive. We are trying to help build the evidence base that will justify societal decision to make these technologies and services accessible to anyone who wants them, regardless of means, education or race and ethnicity.” (Photo copyright: Wall Street Journal.)

Is Preventative Genomics Elitist?

As large medical centers penetrate the consumer genetic testing market some experts express concerns. In a paper he wrote for Medium, titled, “Is Preventive Genomics Elitist?” Green asked, “Is a service like this further widening the inequities in our healthcare system?”

Green reported that while building the Preventive Genomics Clinic at Brigham, “we … struggled with the reality that there is no health insurance coverage for preventive genomic testing, and our patients must therefore pay out of pocket. This is a troubling feature for a clinic at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, which is known for its ties to communities in Boston with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.”

Most of Brigham’s early genetics patients would likely be “well-off, well-educated, and largely white,” Green wrote. “This represents the profile of typical early adopters in genetic medicine, and in technology writ large. It does not, however, represent the Clinic’s ultimate target audience.”

More Data for Clinical Laboratories

Nevertheless, preventive genomics programs offered by large health systems will likely grow as primary care doctors and others see evidence of value.

Therefore, medical laboratories that process genetic sequencing data may soon be working with growing data sets as more people reach out to healthcare systems for comprehensive DNA sequencing and reporting.

—Donna Marie Pocius

Related Information:

Top U.S. Medical Centers Roll Out DNA Sequencing Clinics for Healthy Clients

Brigham and Women’s Hospital Opens Preventive Genomics Clinic

Preventive Genomics for Healthy People

Consumers Buy into Genetic Testing Kits

Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Market to Reach $6.36 Billion by 2028

Is Preventive Genomics Elitist?

Why It’s Time for All Clinical Laboratories and Anatomic Pathology Groups to Have a Genetic Testing and Gene Sequencing Strategy

More Clinical Laboratories and Genetic Testing Companies Are Sharing Gene Sequencing Data That Involve Variations

Veritas Genetics Drops Its Price for Clinical-Grade Whole-Genome Sequencing to $599, as Gene Sequencing Costs Continue to Fall

Nano-Optic Endoscope Offers Anatomic Pathologists, Medical Laboratories Higher Resolution and Precision Optical Imaging

New metalens technology from MGH and SEAS researchers gives greater endoscopic optical imaging resolution and sample detail for anatomic pathologists performing diagnostics

Anatomic pathologists and clinical laboratories know that biopsy samples are necessary to diagnose many diseases. But, current endoscopic imaging techniques used by physicians sometimes fail to clearly visualize disease sites. Consequently, biopsies collected during these procedures may make it harder for pathologists and physicians to diagnose certain diseases and health conditions.

Now, a combined team of endoscopic imaging experts at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and flat metalens developers at Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed “a new class of endoscopic imaging catheters—termed nano-optic endoscopes—that overcomes the limitations of current systems.”

That’s according to an article in Nature Photonics that reported on the research team’s study, published in

These nano-optics involved “flat metalenses” that promise to sharpen clarity and increase resolution of endoscopic imaging technology In turn, this contributes to more accurate pathology diagnostics and improve patient outcomes, while furthering the aims of precision medicine.

“Metalenses based on flat optics are a game changing new technology because the control of image distortions necessary for high resolution imaging is straightforward compared to conventional optics, which requires multiple complex shaped lenses,” Federico Capasso, PhD, Robert L. Wallace Professor of Applied Physics and Vinton Hayes Senior Research Fellow in Electrical Engineering at SEAS, and co-senior author of the study paper, told Nature Photonics. “I am confident that this will lead to a new class of optical systems and instruments with a broad range of applications in many areas of science and technology.”

The image above shows a flat metalens taken using a scanning electron microscope. Anatomic pathologists and medical laboratories will benefit from the better quality biopsy specimens collected because of the sharper clarity and increased resolution of endoscopes built with the new nano-optics. (Photo copyright: Harvard SEAS.)

Researchers demonstrated the nano-optic endoscope’s ability to deeply penetrate and capture images at high resolutions in various tissues, including:

  • Swine and sheep airways;
  • Human lung tissue; and,
  • Fruit flesh.

In the human lung tissue, “[T]he researchers were able to clearly identify structures that correspond to fine, irregular glands indicating the presence of adenocarcinoma, the most prominent type of lung cancer,” according to

Improving Endoscopic Imaging through Metalenses

The improved image resolution is due to the flat metalens configuration. “Currently, we are at the mercy of materials that we have no control over to design high-resolution lenses for imaging,” Yao-Wei Huang, PhD, Post-Doctoral Fellow at Harvard’s John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and co-first author of the paper, told

Yao-Wei Huang, PhD (above), is a Post-Doctoral Fellow at Harvard’s John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and co-first author of the study paper. “The main advantage of the metalens is that we can design and tailor its specifications to overcome spherical aberrations and astigmatism and achieve very fine focus of the light. As a result, we achieve very high resolution with extended depth of field without the need for complex optical components.” (Photo copyright: Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.)

The researchers note that current endoscopes using gradient-index (GRIN) lens-prism configurations and angle-polished ball lenses are used in a range of clinical applications due to their basic design. However, this benefit comes with shortfalls. “The ability of the nano-optic endoscope to obtain high-resolution images of sub-surface tissue structures in vivo is likely to increase the clinical utility of OCT [optical coherence tomography] in detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of diseases,” they state in their paper.

“The ability to control other properties of output light, such as the polarization state, enables a host of other applications—implausible to achieve using conventional catheters,” they continue. “Several tissues—such as smooth muscle, collagen (either innate or in fibrosis), and blood vessels—have constituent structures highly organized in one particular direction. Polarization-sensitive imaging can differentiate these structures from surrounding tissue by detecting their innate birefringence and optic axis.”

They further note that nano-optic endoscopes may yield benefits to other endoscopic optical imaging modalities such as confocal endomicroscopy.

Additional clinically-oriented studies will be required to assess how nano-optic endoscopes can elevate the capabilities of endoscopic OCT in examining fine pathological changes in luminal tissues.

Implications for Clinical Laboratories and Pathology Groups

The technology is still in the research stage with more trials needed to confirm the viability and accuracy of the approach. “This preclinical evaluation of the nano-optic endoscope indicated no significant flaws in the design for in vivo endoscopic imaging,” researchers note.

However, should nano-optic catheters gain clearance and change the endoscopy landscape as researchers predict, medical laboratories and pathologists might enjoy higher resolution images with greater information of the sample site—both key components of accurate diagnosis.

“Clinical adoption of many cutting-edge endoscopic microscopy modalities has been hampered due to the difficulty of designing miniature catheters that achieve the same image quality as bulky desktop microscopes,” Melissa Suter, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine at MGH and Harvard Medical School (HMS) and co-senior author of the study told Nature Photonics. “The use of nano-optic catheters that incorporate metalenses into their design will likely change the landscape of optical catheter design, resulting in a dramatic increase in the quality, resolution, and functionality of endoscopic microscopy. This will ultimately increase clinical utility by enabling more sophisticated assessment of cell and tissue microstructure in living patients.”

This research project at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences is another example of how advances in technologies unrelated to surgical pathology can eventually contribute to improvements in how pathologists diagnose disease and help physicians identify the most promising therapies for their patients.

—Jon Stone

Related Information:

Nano-Optic Endoscope Sees Deep into Tissue at High Resolution

Nano-Optic Endoscope for High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography In Vivo

Nano-Optic Endoscope Allows High-Resolution Imaging

High-Resolution Nano-Optic Endoscope for Better Disease Detection

Human Antibodies in Medical Laboratory May Be Key to Immunity and Preventing Diseases Such as Influenza A

Scientists with Francis Crick Institute and Ragon Institute have successfully created human antibodies in vitro that can be made to recognize specific antigens in the human body; Could lead to new treatments for cancer and other infectious diseases

It’s been long-recognized that the ability to design human antibodies customized to recognize specific antigens could be a game-changer in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. It would enable the creation of useful new clinical laboratory tests, vaccines, and similar therapeutic modalities.

Now an international research team has published the findings of its novel technique that was developed to generate human antibodies in vitro. The research was conducted at the Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Harvard, and the Francis Crick Institute in London.

Antibodies and antigens are used in a large number of clinical laboratory and anatomic pathology tests and assays. In many cases, animal antibodies/antigens are used in test kits because they attract and bind to specific human antibodies/antigens that are biomarkers for diagnoses. Thus, as this technology is validated and further developed, it could be the source of useful biomarkers for lab tests as well as for vaccines.

Antibodies—also referred to as immunoglobulins—are made by the body’s B-lymphocytes (B cells) in response to antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, or other harmful substances. Each antibody has a special bearing on a particular antigen. For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody and HIV antigen (p24) test screens and diagnoses people for HIV infection, explained LabTestsOnline.

Many medical laboratory tests use animal antibodies and antigens. But what if human antibodies could be generated and stimulated to recognize specific human antigens? That’s what the researchers believe they have done, according to a press release.

The Ragon Institute at MGH, MIT, and Harvard (above) was established in 2009 to find an HIV vaccine and to be a worldwide leader in the study of immunology. The Francis Crick Institute, formed in 2015, is a biomedical research institute using biology to understand health and disease. (Photo copyright: The Ragon Institute.)

The researchers know the novel technique they developed for generating human antibodies in vitro needs further development and validation. If this happens, the technique could one day be the source of useful biomarkers for medical lab tests, and may be a way to prevent infectious diseases.

“Specifically, it should allow the production of these antibodies within a shorter time frame in vitro and without the need for vaccination or blood/serum donation from recently infected or vaccinated individuals,” said Facundo D. Batista, PhD, in the press release. Batista is Principle Investigator with the Ragon Institute and led the research teams. “In addition, our method offers the potential to accelerate the development of new vaccines by allowing the efficient evaluation of candidate target antigens.”

Researchers Aim to Make Human Antibodies in Medical Laboratory

This international team of researchers sought to replicate in the lab—using patient blood samples—a natural human process for creation of antibodies from B cells. This is the process they wished to replicate:

·       Antibodies are made by the body’s B cells;

·       An antigen molecule is recognized by a B cell;

·       Plasma cells (able to secrete antibodies) develop;

·       An antibody binds to a particular antigen to fight an infection.

“B lymphocytes (B cells) play a critical role in adaptive immunity, providing protection from pathogens through the production of specific antibodies. B cells recognize and respond to pathogen-derived antigens through surface B cell receptors,” the researchers wrote in The Journal of Experimental Medicine (JEM).

Nanoparticles Key to the Approach

But finding an exact antigen is only one part of the B cell’s job. In the lab, B cells also need a trigger that enables them to grow and develop into plasma cells, which are key to fighting disease, the researchers noted.

“The in vitro activation of B cells in an antigen-dependent manner is difficult to achieve,” the authors stated in the JEM. “To overcome limitations, we developed a novel in vitro strategy to stimulate human B cells with streptavidin nanoparticles conjugated to both CpG and antigen. B cells producing antigen-specific antibodies were identified, quantified, and characterized to determine the antibody repertoire.”

According to the press release, “CpG oligonucleotides internalize into B cells that recognize the specific antigen.”

The statement, which garnered worldwide attention, noted the following steps taken by the researchers:

·       B cells from patient blood samples were isolated;

·       Then, they were treated with tiny nanoparticles coated with both CpG oligonucleotides and the right antigen;

·       These DNA molecules are unique, because they can activate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9);

·       TLR9 develops into antibody-secreting plasma cells.

Results: Antibodies for Tetanus, Influenza, HIV

This method, according to the scientists, could be used in further research to develop antibodies to treat infectious diseases and cancer.

According to The Times of India,

·       “The team successfully demonstrated their approach using various bacterial and viral antigens, including the tetanus toxoid and proteins from several strains of influenza A;

·       “In each case, the researchers were able to produce specific, high-affinity antibodies in just a few days. Some of the anti-influenza antibodies generated by the technique recognized multiple strains of the virus and were able to neutralize its ability to infect cells;

·       “The procedure does not depend on the donors having been previously exposed to any of these antigens through vaccination or infection; and,

·       “Researchers were able to generate anti-HIV antibodies from B cells isolated from HIV-free patients.”

Research Suggests More Possibilities

While this highly scientific study may not be on the radar of most anatomic pathologists and medical laboratory leaders at the moment, it holds enormous promise to produce cures for infectious disease and more effective cancer treatments. This research project also demonstrates how new techniques using antibodies have the potential to create an entirely new generation of clinical laboratory assays that improve diagnostic accuracy and better inform physicians when they consider the most appropriate therapies for their patients.

—Donna Marie Pocius

Related Information:

Researchers Develop New Method to Generate Human Antibodies

Novel In Vitro Booster Vaccination to Rapidly Generate Antigen-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies

Human Antibodies Produced in Lab for First Time