Recent intrusions into the hospitals’ IT systems resulted in blocked medical records including medical laboratory data
Healthcare cyberattacks continue to be a threat that bring potentially costly business consequences for clinical laboratories. Just in the past month, two hospital systems had their health information technology (HIT) systems disrupted due to security incidents. In response, the hospitals’ medical laboratories were forced to switch from digital to paper documentation and, in at least one case, the organization reportedly had difficulty accessing electronic laboratory test results.
At Tallahassee Memorial, an “IT security issue” on Feb. 2 resulted in the organization shutting down its IT systems for 13 days, including at its clinical laboratory. The hospital’s computer network went back online on Feb. 15, according to a news release.
At Atlantic General Hospital, according to an AGH news release, IT personnel discovered a ransomware attack on Jan. 29 that affected the hospital’s central computer system. As a result, the walk-in outpatient laboratory was closed until Feb. 14.
These recent cyberattacks underscore the importance for clinical laboratory leaders to have plans and procedures already in place prior to a disruption in access to critical patient data.
Healthcare cyberattacks can be a “complete blindside for a lot of organizations that think they have protections in place because they bought a product or they developed a policy,” said Ben Denkers (above), Chief Innovation Officer at CynergisTek, an Austin, Texas-based cybersecurity company, in an exclusive interview with The Dark Report. Since clinical laboratory test results make up about 80% of a patient’s medical records, disruption of a hospital’s IT network can be life threatening. (Photo copyright: The Dark Report.)
Laboratory Staff Unable to View Digital Diagnostic Results at Tallahassee Memorial
Though the exact nature of the incident at Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare has not been divulged, hospital officials did report the incident to law enforcement, which suggests a cyberattack had occurred.
Electronic laboratory test results were among the casualties of the IT difficulties at TMH. “Staff have been unable to access digital patient records and lab results because of the shutdown,” a source told CNN.
Attempts by Dark Daily to reach a medical laboratory manager for comment at TMH were unsuccessful. However, in a news release posted online shortly after the cyberattack, the health system advised staff members on dealing with the IT outages.
“Patients and families may notice the switch to paper documentation during registration, admission, or during their care, as our providers will be using paper forms, prescription pads, handwritten notes, or other similar paper methods where they may usually use an electronic process,” the news release stated. “We apologize for any delays this may create. We practice for situations like this, and we are prepared to provide safe, high-quality care to our patients during computer system downtimes.”
Atlantic General Hospital Reports Ransomware Incident to the FBI
At Atlantic General Hospital, the outpatient walk-in laboratory and outpatient imaging department both temporarily closed because of the ransomware attack.
Staff members throughout the hospital were “forced to manually check patients in and out of appointments and record all other information by hand instead of online,” Ocean City Today reported.
The hospital immediately informed the FBI of the ransomware incident and continues to work with an incident response team to determine whether criminals accessed any sensitive data. It was not clear whether the organization ultimately paid a ransom to unlock its systems.
The hospital’s medical laboratory director did not respond to an email from Dark Daily seeking further comment.
Healthcare Cyberattacks Attempt to Gain Access to Data
Therefore, it is critical that clinical laboratory and hospital staff work with their IT counterparts to verify that technology and processes are in place to protect access to patient data.
In “Labs Must Audit Their Cybersecurity Measures,” Ben Denkers, who at that time was Chief Innovation Officer at CynergisTek, a cybersecurity firm based in Austin, Texas, told The Dark Report, “Testing, validating, and auditing whether measures are working as designed is a change of mentality for a lot of organizations.” (If you don’t subscribe to The Dark Report, try our free trial.)
An IT network attack is an attempt by a cybercriminal to gain unauthorized access to devices that contain and exchange data within an organization. Although this information may be on individual devices or on servers, network attacks are often only possible after a hacker enters a system through an endpoint, such as an individual’s email inbox.
“It’s important to understand that while the network server itself might have ultimately been the target, that doesn’t necessarily mean that it was compromised first,” Denkers told The Dark Report. “Phishing is a perfect example of a way an attacker could first gain access to a workstation, and then from there move laterally to a server.”
The final cost of a healthcare cyberattack often exceeds the ransom. Media coverage can lead to an organization’s diminished reputation within the community, and if protected health information (PHI) is accessed by the criminals, a hospital or health system may need to pay for identity theft monitoring for affected patients.
As part of the settlement, Banner Health paid a $1.25 million penalty and will carry out a corrective action plan to protect PHI in the future and resolve any alleged HIPAA violations, according to the HHS Office for Civil Rights.
This hefty penalty is a reminder to pathologists and clinical laboratory managers that—when it comes to cyberattacks—the classic adage “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is appropriate advice.
Therefore, it is crucial clinical laboratories and pathology groups have a cybersecurity strategy in place for dealing with ransomware attacks. Running security drills may need to be part of that strategy. Managers and employees should undergo specific training and vendors must be vetted carefully. Without such a strategy, the question is not if an attack will happen, but rather when an attack will succeed.
“They’re getting better, they’re getting more frequent, particularly during the pandemic where we’ve opened up more connectivity to allow more remote work,” he added.
The Scripps Health attack is notable for several reasons, with one being the length of the outage it caused. The attack was first detected on May 1 of this year. It took four weeks before Scripps could restore most of its network and get its Epic EHR back online, Health IT Security reported.
However, the ransomware attack on Universal Health Services (NYSE:UHS) may be the biggest attack so far. It took place on September 27, 2020, and caused a three-week outage. The company told The San Diego Tribune the incident had a $67 million impact on operations.
According to HIPAA Journal, “The phone system was taken out of action, and without access to computers and electronic health records, employees had to resort to pen and paper to record patient information. In the early hours after the attack occurred, the health system diverted ambulances to alternative facilities and some elective procedures were either postponed or diverted to competitors. Patients reported delays receiving test results while UHS recovered from the attack.”
At Utah Pathology Services, an employee e-mail hack resulted in the potential exposure of patient data. The malicious actors attempted to divert funds intended for a physician but failed to do so. However, the information of 112,000 patients was accessible to the hacker during the attempt.
“The compromised data varied by patient but could include names, contact information, insurance details such as ID and group numbers, medical and health information like internal records numbers and clinical and diagnostic information, and some Social Security numbers,” Health IT Security reported.
Value of Patient Data on the Dark Web is Increasing
In the case of the Utah Pathology Services attack, the hackers were specifically after money. However, according to cybersecurity company SecureLink, patient records are “the new prize” for hackers. Healthcare data carries a value of its own on the digital black market. In fact, healthcare data is more valuable than credit card or banking data.
“Healthcare data is valuable on the black market because it often contains all of an individual’s personally identifiable information, as opposed to a single marker that may be found in a financial breach,” SecureLink wrote in a blog post.
A 2018 Trustwave Global Security Report estimated that a healthcare record is worth about $250. Trustwave, however, estimated the value of a banking record at less than $5. That strongly suggests health records are increasing in value.
And even after a healthcare entity has regained control of its IT infrastructure, the hacker still has possession of the stolen patient information. It may take weeks or years for the hacker to sell that information, meaning the breach represents a continuing threat to the healthcare organization and its patients.
Clinical Laboratories Must Prepare for an Attack
Simply understanding the threat is not enough. Clinical laboratory and pathology group managers must have robust plans in place for both protecting patient information and for dealing with a security breach should one occur.
According to a Health IT Security report, “The ransomware attack that struck all 400 UHS care sites and caused three weeks of EHR downtime in September, cost the health system $67 million in recovery costs and lost revenue.”
The report added, “Security researchers have long-recommended the need for providers to shift into a proactive security model, like zero trust. Recent reports show successful cyberattacks on healthcare providers doubled in the last year, with at least 560 providers falling victim to ransomware.”
To deal with the ransomware attacks, we wrote, “CISA, FBI, and HHS advise against paying ransoms. ‘Payment does not guarantee files will be recovered,’ the advisory states. ‘It may also embolden adversaries to target additional organizations, encourage other criminal actors to engage in the distribution of ransomware, and/or fund illicit activities.’ The federal agencies advise organizations to take preventive measures and adopt plans for coping with attacks.
“The advisory suggests:
Training programs for employees, including raising awareness about ransomware and phishing scams. Organizations should ‘ensure that employees know who to contact when they see suspicious activity or when they believe they have been a victim of a cyberattack.’
Regular backups of data and software. These should be ‘maintained offline or in separated networks as many ransomware variants attempt to find and delete any accessible backups.’ Personnel should also test the backups.
Continuity plans in case information systems are not accessible. For example, organizations should maintain ‘hard copies of digital information that would be required for critical patient healthcare.’”
Given the enormous amounts of money hackers can earn from selling protected health information on the Dark Web, it is a near certainty these attacks will continue. Clinical laboratory and anatomic pathology group managers would be well advised to plan for the inevitability that their health system will be targeted.
Sophisticated cyberattacks have already hit hospitals and healthcare networks in Oregon, California, New York, Vermont, and other states
Attention medical laboratory managers and pathology group administrators: It’s time to ramp up your cyberdefenses. The FBI, the federal Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the federal Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) issued a joint advisory (AA20-302A) warning US hospitals, clinical laboratories, and other healthcare providers to prepare for impending ransomware attacks, in which cybercriminals use malware, known as ransomware, to encrypt files on victims’ computers and demand payment to restore access.
The joint advisory, titled, “Ransomware Activity Targeting the Healthcare and Public Health Sector,” states, “CISA, FBI, and HHS have credible information of an increased and imminent cybercrime threat to US hospitals and healthcare providers.” It includes technical details about the threat—which uses a type of ransomware known as Ryuk—and suggests best practices for preventing and handling attacks.
In his KrebsOnSecurity blog post, titled, “FBI, DHS, HHS Warn of Imminent, Credible Ransomware Threat Against U.S. Hospitals,” former Washington Post reporter, Brian Krebs, wrote, “On Monday, Oct. 26, KrebsOnSecurity began following up on a tip from a reliable source that an aggressive Russian cybercriminal gang known for deploying ransomware was preparing to disrupt information technology systems at hundreds of hospitals, clinics, and medical care facilities across the United States. Today, officials from the FBI and the US Department of Homeland Security hastily assembled a conference call with healthcare industry executives warning about an ‘imminent cybercrime threat to US hospitals and healthcare providers.’”
Krebs went on to reported that the threat is linked to a notorious cybercriminal gang known as UNC1878, which planned to launch the attacks against 400 healthcare facilities.
Clinical Labs, Pathology Groups at Risk Because of the Patient Data They Keep
Hackers initially gain access to organizations’ computer systems through phishing campaigns, in which users receive emails “that contain either links to malicious websites that host the malware or attachments with the malware,” the advisory states. Krebs noted that the attacks are “often unique to each victim, including everything from the Microsoft Windows executable files that get dropped on the infected hosts to the so-called ‘command and control’ servers used to transmit data between and among compromised systems.”
Charles Carmakal, SVP and Chief Technology Officer of cybersecurity firm Mandiant told Reuters, “UNC1878 is one of the most brazen, heartless, and disruptive threat actors I’ve observed over my career,” adding, “Multiple hospitals have already been significantly impacted by Ryuk ransomware and their networks have been taken offline.”
Multiple Healthcare Provider Networks Under Attack
Hospitals in Oregon, California, and New York have already been hit by the attacks, Reuters reported. “We can still watch vitals and getting imaging done, but all results are being communicated via paper only,” a doctor at one facility told Reuters, which reported that “staff could see historic records but not update those files.”
Some of the hospitals that have reportedly experienced cyberattacks include:
Threat intelligence analyst Allan Liska of US cybersecurity firm Recorded Future told Reuters, “This appears to have been a coordinated attack designed to disrupt hospitals specifically all around the country.”
He added, “While multiple ransomware attacks against healthcare providers each week have been commonplace, this is the first time we have seen six hospitals targeted in the same day by the same ransomware actor.”
An earlier ransomware attack in September targeted 250 healthcare facilities operated by Universal Health Services Inc. (UHS). A clinician at one facility reported “a high-anxiety scramble” where “medical staff could not easily see clinical laboratory results, imaging scans, medication lists, and other critical pieces of information doctors rely on to make decisions,” AP reported.
Outside of the US, a similar ransomware attack in October at a hospital in Düsseldorf, Germany, prompted a homicide investigation by German authorities after the death of a patient being transferred to another facility was linked to the attack, the BBC reported.
CISA, FBI, HHS, Advise Against Paying Ransoms
To deal with the ransomware attacks, CISA, FBI, and HHS advise against paying ransoms. “Payment does not guarantee files will be recovered,” the advisory states. “It may also embolden adversaries to target additional organizations, encourage other criminal actors to engage in the distribution of ransomware, and/or fund illicit activities.” The federal agencies advise organizations to take preventive measures and adopt plans for coping with attacks.
The advisory suggests:
Training programs for employees, including raising awareness about ransomware and phishing scams. Organizations should “ensure that employees know who to contact when they see suspicious activity or when they believe they have been a victim of a cyberattack.”
Regular backups of data and software. These should be “maintained offline or in separated networks as many ransomware variants attempt to find and delete any accessible backups.” Personnel should also test the backups.
Continuity plans in case information systems are not accessible. For example, organizations should maintain “hard copies of digital information that would be required for critical patient healthcare.”
“Without planning, provision, and implementation of continuity principles, organizations may be unable to continue operations,” the advisory states. “Evaluating continuity and capability will help identify continuity gaps. Through identifying and addressing these gaps, organizations can establish a viable continuity program that will help keep them functioning during cyberattacks or other emergencies.”
Dark Daily Publisher and Editor-in-Chief, Robert Michel, suggests that clinical laboratories and anatomic pathology groups should have their cyberdefenses assessed by security experts. “This is particularly true because the technologies and methods used by hackers change rapidly,” he said, “and if their laboratory information systems have not been assessed in the past year, then this proactive assessment could be the best insurance against an expensive ransomware attack a lab can purchase.”