Media coverage of a recent Orig3n promotion-and intervention from state and federal officials-reveals the level of discomfort public and policymakers have for handling the publics’ protected health information, including genetic test data
Is it appropriate to offer free genetic tests to 70,000 fans attending a professional football game? Apparently not, say federal and state healthcare regulators who took steps to block a planned free genetic test giveaway that the Baltimore Ravens and clinical laboratory company Orig3n planned to conduct on Sunday, September 17.
Genetic testing has become a mainstay of clinical laboratories and pathology groups. And it can’t be denied that the growing popularity of self-administered genetic tests could have an impact on medical laboratories’ revenue. Additionally, there’s the issue of state and federal privacy laws in the handling of protected health information (PHI) as outlined by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to consider. Thus, the news that a developer of genetic self-test kits planned to distribute hundreds of free tests at an NFL football game in Baltimore quickly garnered the attention of federal and state officials, as well as the national media.
Instead of handing out t-shirts, Orig3n, a developer of genetic self-tests kits based in Boston, planned to offer free DNA tests at the September home opening game of the Baltimore Ravens. However, the giveaway was not to be. The promotion attracted the attention of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Maryland Department of Health (MDH), and a range of media outlets. This led to postponing the event just days before it was scheduled to happen.
However, news coverage in The Baltimore Sun of the cancellation of the free genetic test giveaway cited concerns from CMS officials about Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) requirements.
Orig3n told Vice in 2016 that Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, and other typical genetic test requirements that apply to medical laboratories, weren’t needed because their tests are non-diagnostic. However, genetic testing often does require physician orders and lab approval in the state of Maryland.
Speaking with The Baltimore Sun, Kevin Byrne, Senior VP of Public and Community Relations for the Baltimore Ravens, stated, “[We are] working with the Maryland Department of Health. Orig3n is confident it can receive the proper approvals and plans to have a fan giveaway later this season at one of our games.”
Criticism of Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Genetic Testing
In Forbes, journalist Rita Rubin noted, “I paid $99 for the 23andMe direct-to-consumer genetic testing service several years ago. Turns out 23andMe included at least one of the four genes covered by the test Orig3n plans to give out to Ravens fans.”
23andMe is also familiar with the regulatory hurdles of DTC genetic testing. As we reported in 2013, the company received letters from the FDA demanding they cease sale of their genetic tests. These letters were followed by a $5-million class-action law suit in California claiming the test results were “meaningless.” (See Dark Daily, “23andMe Socked with FDA Warning Letter and Class Action Lawsuit over Company’s Genetic Testing Services,” December 11, 2013.)
These concerns were echoed by Toni I. Pollin, PhD, Associate Professor at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. “There’s nothing in this that I think is a good idea,” she told The Baltimore Sun. “The tests they’re talking about doing are not going to be useful for a particular individual.”
Modern Healthcare followed up on the 23andme story in 2016. Although the class-action suit eventually failed in the 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals, it took nearly two years for 23andMe to bring a portion of their tests to the market.
However, the coverage surrounding both events illustrate how wary government regulators might be to allow direct-to-consumer genetic testing to become a commonplace service. And how wary the public is to trust these new technologies and services with their protected health information.
Privacy Concerns and Media Backlash Still Common
In a September press release promoting the event, Orig3n states, “Orig3n is on a mission to advance the future of health. We believe that everyone should have direct, affordable access to their genetic information and reaching people with DNA tests on such a large scale is a natural and exciting way for us to demonstrate that.”
While Orig3n claims security is in place to protect sensitive genetic information, Bethesda, Maryland, attorney Bradley Shear and Peter Pitts, President of the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest (CMPI), both cited security concerns in the Baltimore Sun article.
The privacy and security concerns surrounding the collection and pooling of genomic and healthcare big data are not limited to the US. This trend continues to shape how innovative technologies grow and how systems and companies communicate data around the world.
A June ebriefing highlighted how even blinded data can be collated and compared to learn far more about a person or patient than a single dataset might suggest. (See Dark Daily, “Coverage of Alexion Investigation Highlights the Risk to Clinical Laboratories That Sell Blinded Medical Data,” June 21, 2017.)
Alexion (NASDAQ:ALXN), a pharmaceutical company specializing in orphan drugs, was shoved into the spotlight by Bloomberg Businessweek for aggressive marketing tactics in several countries around the world using blinded data to target patients and clinicians. The story also brought with it mentions of high-profile clinical laboratories and diagnostics providers—a potential PR nightmare for all involved.
Direct-to-consumer genetic tests offer opportunities for consumers to discover facets of their health and genetic backgrounds. However, the potential risks, security/privacy concerns, and the true value of test results continue to create hurdles for commercial service providers, as well as for pathologists and clinical laboratories.
Until public and regulatory scrutiny decreases, the value of the data gathered by these tests is determined, and standards are in place regarding security of customers’ protected health information, laboratories should remain vigilant and tread carefully when considering DTC testing as a viable opportunity to expand revenues.